Frequent Urination in Children (Part 2)

31 March 2014, BKK Kids

Following on from the previous issue on Pollakiuria, the urination records that parents sent to us tell us that it is the following diseases which are causing this syndrome.

Causes of abnormally frequent urination that are not due to Pollakiuria are as follows:

1. Abnormalities of the urinary bladder on voiding

  • Abnormalities of the nervous system which controls the release of urine are usually present since birth or are the result of damage or an injury to the parts of the spine and spine cord that control urination.  Children suffering from this syndrome experience dribbling urine or a weak flow urine stream. Some urine will also remain in the urinary bladder over the limit. A physical examination, the urination record and additional diagnostic test can help screen out diseases that are not related to this condition.
  • Abnormalities in the urinary bladder that are not related to the nervous system, a functional disturbance of the normal voiding cycle, may be caused by the muscles of the urinary bladder or a lack of inhibitory cerebral control over bladder contraction.

 

2. Infection

  • Enterobius infection
  • Urinary tract infection (see article titled “Let’s Get To Know About Frequent Urination”)
  • Infection or wounds in the vicinity of the sexual organ in girls or urethra or urethral opening, the distal part of urinary tract in boys

3. Diseases that contribute to an unusually large volume of urine include diabetes, diabetes insipidus, or the accumulation of stones in the kidney tissue or the urinary tract (the possibility of stones in the urinary tract in children are rare and far lower when compared to adults). In case there is any reliable indication of the presence of this condition, a urine test and a blood test are required.

4. Intake of drugs or substances that stimulate frequent urination including diuretics or some groups of bronchodilators, some types of anti-allergic drugs, and some types of psychotropic drugs.

5. Other Causes

  • Overly frequent and overly high consumption of water
  • Intake of food or drinks that contains caffeine such as tea, carbonated drinks, cocoa and chocolate, and in some cases, the consumption of drinks that contain acid or oxalate including black tea, iced tea, orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, grapefruit juice,  or tomato juice
  • Constipation
  • Sexual assault in children which causes wounds, irritation, or infection of the sexual organs and other nearby organs, and also has a psychological impact on the children

To confirm the diagnosis of Pollakiuria, it is important to screen out the above mentioned conditions. However, in certain cases, it is very difficult to isolate some conditions which are believed to trigger Pollakiuria. These include:

  • Viral infection of the urinary tract
  • Irritation or inflammation of urethra and urethral opening, caused by chemical substances
  • Abnormally high amounts of calcium, oxalate or acid found in the urine
  • The urinary bladder being over-sensitive to cool temperatures
  • Children having mental stress as a result of the environment they live in or unknown internal trigger from their own minds

Suggestions and Treatment Approaches for Pollakiuria

1. Boosting children’s confidence and giving support for treatment.

2. If the cause is not overconsumption of water, liberal fluid intake is recommended with adequate water consumed for his/her age.

3. Avoid caffeinated drinks and foods or food that contains high calcium, oxalate or intense acid such as black tea, iced tea, bottled tea, coffee, carbonated drinks, chocolate, and juices such as orange, apple, orange grapefruit, grape and tomato.

4. Specific Treatment

  • Medication can be used to treat cases when the symptoms are serious resistant to behavioral therapy or bowel training and affects the everyday life of the children.
  • Bowel training, enlarging the bladder and conducting biofeedback therapy which will be advised from the doctor who is in charge of the treatment.

5. In case the child is having mental problems, it is advisable to have a psychiatrist in the team.

Predicting Pollakiuria is benigh and good prognosis for treatment. While the condition generally resolves itself, some children can take a very long time to return to normal. On average, it takes 2-6 months, although the longest recovery period is 2-3 years. Of the children who go for biofeedback therapy, more than 85% take four months to recover. To treat this syndrome, it is important to really understand it, as well as to have the cooperation of parents and the children. What children need most is moral support
and their parents standing by.

“The Primary Causes of Abnormally Frequent Urination” and “Stimulating Factors of Pollakiuria”

Causes
1.    Abnormalities in urination caused by the muscles of the urinary bladder or the nervous system
2.    Enterobius
3.    Unusually large volume of urine

  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Stones in the kidney tissue

4.    Urinary tract infection
5.    Intake of drugs or substances that stimulate frequent urination
6.    Other causes

  • Over consumption of water
  • Constipation
  • Infection or wounds in the vicinity of the sexual organs, urethra or urethral opening

 

Stimulating Factors
1.    Infection in the urinary bladder that is not caused by bacteria
2.    Inflammation or irritation in the urethra or urethral opening caused by chemical substances
3.    Masturbation
4.    The urinary  bladder being over-sensitive to cool temperatures
5.    Children having mental stress as a result of the environment or from their own minds

  • Trouble in school
  • Study issues and being bullied in school
  • Feeling that they are being hurt by their loved ones or sexual assault
  • Parental divorce
  • Loss of family members
  • Going to a new school
  • Having a new-born younger sibling

For further information, please contact: http://www.samitivejhospitals.com/Home/en

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